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Cablegate: Tenth Annual Trafficking in Persons (Tip) Report for Spain

DE RUEHMD #0183/01 0471612
R 161612Z FEB 10



DEPARTMENT FOR G/TIP (Jennifer Donnelly), G (Laura Pena), EUR/PGI
(Jody Buckneberg) EUR/WE (Alex McKnight, Stacie Zerdecki) INL, DRL,

E.O. 12958: DECL: N/A

09 MADRID 1101

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1. (SBU) Pursuant to Ref A, the following is input from Embassy
Madrid and CG Barcelona for the tenth annual Trafficking in Persons
(TIP) Report. Post will need to supply an update cable to
incorporate additional legal and judicial statistics. Embassy POC
is POLOFF Hugh Clifton, Tel. (34) 91-587-2294, fax (34) 91-587-2391.
POL/MGT Officer Darby Parliament is the POC at the Consulate
General in Barcelona: Tel. (34)93-280-2227, fax (34)93-205-7764.

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Staff hours spent in preparation of this report are as follows:


2. (SBU) Spain maintains an active set of political, legal and
social mechanisms to combat trafficking in persons (TIP). The
Spanish government (GOS) places a high priority on fighting TIP and
coordinates this fight with national and international law
enforcement, regional and local governments, and non-governmental
organizations (NGOs). During the reporting period, Spain undertook
a broad array of measures to assist trafficking victims, take down
trafficking networks, prosecute perpetrators, prevent future
trafficking, and reduce the demand for commercial sex acts. Spain's
efforts were highlighted by the multi-faceted implementation of the
government's ambitious, three-year, 61-point plan to combat TIP for
the purposes of sexual exploitation, which was approved in December
2008 and came into force in January 2009. The GOS has strict rules
on the books for Spanish nationals caught participating in
international child sex tourism, and Spanish peacekeepers deployed
abroad receive anti-TIP training through participation in
multilateral efforts. The GOS is firmly committed to combating TIP
and undertook a series of concrete actions in 2009 to carry out this
political will. Post firmly believes that the GOS's efforts during
2009 merit Spain's continued inclusion in the Tier 1 category of
countries combating TIP.

3. (SBU) Spain remains both a transit and destination country for
internationally trafficked persons, primarily women between the ages
of 18 to 25 trafficked for prostitution. Spain is generally not a
country of origin for trafficking. Statistical data and information
on Spanish government efforts to combat TIP come from the Ministry
of Interior, which includes the Spanish National Police (SNP) and
the Civil Guard (GC), the Spanish national courts, and NGOs.


4. (SBU) Post fully expects the SNP once again to furnish us with a
restricted internal report that provides detailed information on TIP
enforcement trends, including TIP-related arrests and the number of
trafficking victims identified during the reporting period. Post
will provide this information septel. The GOS continues to
distinguish between trafficking crimes and migrant smuggling, and
government statistics and information clearly reflect this


5. (SBU) Checklist 25 A. Statistical data and information on
Spanish government efforts to combat TIP come from the Ministry of
Interior - which includes the Spanish National Police (SNP) and the
Civil Guard (GC) as well as the Ministry of Justice, the Spanish
national courts, and NGOs. The Spanish Network Against TIP, a
coalition of more than 20 diverse and active NGOs, claims that there

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are at least 50,000 people in Spain who are victims of TIP. Spanish
security services dispute this number as too large, although they do
not offer their own estimates. The GC reported in 2008 that 90
percent of TIP victims in Spain are foreign nationals. As in
previous years, information on specific TIP-related investigations,
convictions and sentencing was available through an on-line
subscription to the Spanish affiliate of WESTLAW (www.westlaw.es),
whose database includes data on a sub-set - but not all - of Spanish
TIP-related prosecutions. The Prosecutor's Office has made
commendable progress in normalizing the compilation of its
TIP-related judicial statistics and the Organized Crime Intelligence
Center (CICO) is making solid progress in its one-stop shop database
on TIP-related law enforcement data.

6. (SBU) Checklist 25 B - D. Spain continues to be both a
destination and transit country for trafficked persons for the
purposes of sexual exploitation, and to a lesser degree, forced
labor. Spain is generally not a country of origin for trafficking
and the MFA informed Post that it knew of no such cases during 2009.
Trafficking in women and girls is mostly for sexual exploitation
and prostitution. According to Spanish law enforcement and NGOs,
trafficked women traditionally have been 18 to 25 years of age, with
some girls as young as 16. Women were trafficked primarily from
Eastern Europe (Romania and Russia), Latin America (Brazil and
Colombia), and sub-Saharan Africa (Nigeria). Data published by the
Spanish media in May 2009 indicates that various regions in Spain
favor women from one country or another, revealing geographical
preference has a hand in the market. For example, in Cantabria, 90
percent are Brazilian; in Girona, the vast majority is from Romania.
Project Esperanza ("Project Hope"), one of the leading anti-TIP
NGOs, has told Post that Romanian TIP victims form the largest
victim group by nationality in Spain while Chinese TIP victims are a
very small community in Spain.

7. (SBU) Checklist 25 E. In Spain, trafficking networks take a
variety of forms and operate under diverse conditions, making them
difficult to control. The SNP's UCRIF unit publicly has noted that
the traffickers can be run by a couple, a gang of friends, or by
massive, highly structured groups that operate across borders as
multinational operations. In recent years, law enforcement
authorities and NGOs have seen increasing incidents of victims being
trafficked by individuals and smaller groups of traffickers.
Proyecto Esperanza in 2009 reported that traffickers are most often
groups of delinquents or organized crime groups and less often
smaller groups of two to four people who are less organized and have
fewer infrastructures at their disposal. The Spanish chapter of
Save the Children continues to indicate to Post that there have been
numerous instances of minors - especially from Romania - being
trafficked into Spain and forced to beg in the streets for money.
Methods used by traffickers to maintain control of their victims
have included physical abuse, forced use of drugs, withholding of
travel documents, and threats to the victim's family, although now
traffickers also threaten the victims with informing their families
about what they do if they do not pay what they "owe" them.
Traffickers also lured some victims from other regions by using
violence, intimidation, coercion and deceit. Other methods utilized
include abuse of a position of authority or by taking advantage of a
victim's needs or vulnerabilities. Often, trafficked victims are
lured by false promises of employment in service industries and
agriculture, but then forced them into prostitution upon their
arrival. The media reported that criminal networks often lured
their victims by using travel agencies and newspaper advertisements
in their home countries that promised assured employment in Spain.
In the case of Romanian organized networks, women were typically
forced into prostitution.

8. (SBU) Continue Checklist 25 E. In 2009 Spain confronted several
instances of voodoo as a method of intimidation for Nigerian TIP
victims who were being sexually exploited. Police in May discovered

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an extensive human trafficking network of women in Seville brought
from Nigeria and forced into prostitution in Spain where they were
deterred from escape by threats of voodoo curses. Before departing
from Nigeria, they were taken to the shrine of a voodoo priest who
took pieces of their fingernails and hair and performed a ritual in
which he made the women swear they would not reveal the identity of
their captors. An SNP Inspector involved in the case assured Post
that the woman who brought the trafficking network to the attention
of authorities received victim assistance. In August, Spanish
authorities - working with German counterparts - disrupted a network
of traffickers that brought women against their will from Nigeria to
Germany via Spain, using false documentation to facilitate their
entrance and employing voodoo as a vehicle of intimidation to force
them into prostitution.


9. (SBU) Checklist 26 A. Spain acknowledges that it has a serious
trafficking problem and government officials at the highest levels
addressed the problem of trafficking during the reporting period and
pledged to continue the anti-TIP fight. Spain maintains an active
set of political, legal and social mechanisms to combat TIP and
coordinates this fight with national and international law
enforcement, regional and local governments, and NGOs. Spain has a
multi-disciplinary approach to fighting trafficking and includes
NGOs and relevant agencies in each case.

10. (SBU) Checklist 26 B. The GOS in 2008 created a Ministry of
Equality in part to oversee the final stages of the formulation of
and the implementation of the government's long awaited anti-TIP
plan. Spain's anti-TIP working group - now under the day-to-day
management of the Ministry of Equality, which reports to the Office
of the First Vice President - includes the Ministries of Interior,
Justice, Labor, and Foreign Affairs. The Ministry of Interior
continues to coordinate day-to-day law enforcement efforts to combat
trafficking and the SNP has a special unit, the Immigration Networks
and Falsified Documents Unit (UCRIF), which covers TIP-related
issues. The UCRIF intelligence unit analyzes statistical data and
trends, while coordinating efforts and sharing data with the GC and
Interpol. Regional offices of the SNP conduct quarterly reviews to
set goals for combating trafficking and to assess progress in
meeting these goals from the previous quarter.

11. (SBU) Checklist 26 C-D. While funding could always be
increased, Spain treats TIP efforts as a priority and has funded its
three-year national anti-TIP action plan with 44 million euros
(roughly $61 million dollars). In a December 2009 report, the
Office of the Special Representative and Coordinator for Combating
Trafficking in Human Beings at the Organization for Security and
Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) praised Spain for providing this
"substantial" budget. We have no evidence that there is any
TIP-related corruption in Spain's government. GOS efforts over the
past year to implement its national action plan against TIP have
allowed it to systematically monitor its anti-trafficking efforts on
all fronts. The GOS has shared its assessments with relevant NGOs
in Spain, and also international organizations such as the OSCE.

12. (SBU) Checklist 26 E. All immigrants in Spain (whether legal or
illegal) are obliged to register in the census, in order to have
access to social services. The census reflects country of origin,
birth date, age, and sex.

13. (SBU) Checklist 26 F. - The GOS has shown itself to be capable
of gathering the data required for an in-depth assessment of
TIP-related law enforcement efforts. Post points to the new
database created and maintained by CICO and the statistics assembled
by the Prosecutor's office.


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14. (SBU) Checklist 27 A. Spain has specific laws to prohibit
trafficking in persons and other activities related to sexual and
labor exploitation. These laws are applied in practice and are
adequate to cover the full scope of trafficking offenses.
Legislation implemented since 2007 includes a law to allow Spanish
judges and prosecutors to pursue suspected TIP mafias outside
Spanish borders. Previously, these Spanish officials did not have
extra-territorial jurisdiction to follow these cases, but the new
law modified the Organic Law of Judicial Power and incorporated
"trafficking in persons and illegal immigration" into the category
of crimes of "universal jurisdiction," along with terrorism,
genocide, prostitution, and drug trafficking. Additionally, the
Spanish Congress approved in late 2007 a change of the Spanish Penal
Code to allow the pursuit of ships believed to be transporting
trafficked persons or illegal immigrants, even if they are not in
Spanish waters, and even if the ship's final destination is another
EU country.

15. (SBU) Continue Checklist 27 A. Article 318 of Spain's criminal
and penal code is the main piece of legislation that penalizes
trafficking in persons. In the legislation, trafficking in human
beings and trafficking in children are distinct crimes. Different
paragraphs in Spain's Criminal Code penalize activities related to
trafficking as it is defined in the Palermo Protocol. This
includes, for both adults and children, crimes of sexual
exploitation, labor exploitation, and slavery or practices similar
to slavery, and domestic servitude. Spain also has legal provisions
addressing the protection and assistance of victims, protection and
assistance of witnesses, special measures for protection and
assistance to children, residence permits for victims of
trafficking, and compensation of victims. There are several other
penal codes related to trafficking in persons, including: Article
312, Crimes Against the Rights of Foreigners; Article 313, Crimes
Involving Forced Labor; and the "Ley Organica" (Organic Law for
measures related to citizen security, domestic violence and the
social integration of the foreigner).

16. (SBU) Continue Checklist 27 A. Illegal immigrants who are
forced into prostitution are covered by the recently approved Alien
Law of November 2009, which established a reflection period of at
least 30 days for them to decide whether or not they will cooperate
with the GOS. In the meantime they will benefit from housing,
protection, medical and psychological assistance, free legal
assistance, interpretation services, and some financial assistance.
The Law provides that they will not be deported if they cooperate
with the authorities in the investigation against their exploiters,
giving them in exchange a residency and work permit, or helping them
to return to their countries if so they wish. GOS officials
emphasize to Post that - just as Spanish citizens who are TIP
victims domestically within Spain - Romanian and Bulgarian victims
are exempt from the new law establishing a reflection period of at
least 30 days to decide whether they would like to cooperate with
police. As EU citizens, they now enjoy freedom of movement and the
right to work in all other EU member states and face no deadline by
which to denounce their captors and can claim their right to social
services or to cooperate with authorities at any time.

17. (SBU) Continue Checklist 27 A. The Council of Ministers, the
Zapatero Administration's Cabinet, on November 13, 2009 approved a
new draft Penal Code to be sent to Congress for debate and approval.
Post understands that the draft has the support of all political
parties in Congress and is expected to be approved during 2010. The
bill establishes trafficking in persons as its own crime, separate
from illegal immigration. The crime will be punished with 5-8
years imprisonment, which can be increased if there are aggravating
circumstances. People subject to this punishment are those who
recruit, transport, shelter, threaten, lie to, or abuse a national
or foreign victim with any of the following goals:

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* Exploitation of his/her labor or services, slavery or similar
* Sexual exploitation, including pornography
* Trafficking in and/or extraction of human organs

18. (SBU) Continue Checklist 27 A. Prostitution and the procurement
of prostitutes are decriminalized in Spain, but forcing others into
prostitution and organizing prostitution rings are crimes.
Furthermore, it is illegal for anyone to profit from the
prostitution of another. Spanish law makes it illegal for pimps or
brothels to receive money from the prostitute's activities, even if
the prostitute consents. Spanish law prohibits the involvement of
minors (under the age of 18) in prostitution. The activities of the
prostitute are not criminalized, but the activities of the brothel
owner/operator, clients, pimps, and enforcers are criminalized.
Spain continues to review its laws regarding prostitution. Spain's
central government remains the principal authority for
anti-trafficking enforcement while leaving the legal status of
prostitution to Spain's 17 regional governments.

19. (SBU) Checklist 27 B. Spanish criminal law was amended in
September 2003 to adapt Spanish legislation to that of other
European Union countries. This amendment raised the penalty for the
crime of trafficking in persons for sexual exploitation to a minimum
of five years in prison and a maximum of 10 (previous sentencing
guidelines ran from 2-4 years behind bars). Sentencing guidelines
in convictions for encouraging, favoring, or facilitating the
trafficking of persons from, in transit, or destined for Spain for
the purpose of sexual exploitation are subject to imprisonment of
5-10 years, with an increase to 12-15 years if trafficking is
carried out with violence, intimidation, deceit or abuse of the
victim. Spanish courts at all levels use a combination of available
penal codes in prosecuting crimes related to trafficking in persons
to ensure a conviction because of a frequent lack of testimony from

20. (SBU) Article one (13) of the above mentioned law modifies
Article 318 bis. of the Penal Code:
-- Four to eight years in prison for a person who, directly or
indirectly, promotes or facilitates the illegal trafficking of
people or illegal immigration from, in transit within, or with a
destination of, Spain.
-- If the human trafficking is for sexual exploitation, the prison
sentences range from 5-10 years.
-- If the person committing the crime uses his/her position of
authority to facilitate the trafficking, or if he/she is a public
servant, the penalty will be 6-12 years.
-- In the event the victim of the crime is under age or has his/her
life put in danger, or if the criminal belongs to an organized crime
or trafficking ring, then the sentences applied will be on the
higher scale.

21. (SBU) While Article 318 has been designed as the primary statute
in TIP cases, the Network highlights that prosecutors in many
instances charge TIP defendants with violation of Article 188 of the
Penal Code instead. Article 188 covers forced prostitution and
profiting from the prostitution of another person and carries a
lesser penalty of 2-4 years.

22. (SBU) Spanish judges often combine a trafficking sentence with a
sentence for crimes involving theft, illegal detention, forgery of
documents, or extortion. When a defendant is convicted of an
additional crime two separate sentences must be served. Once
sentenced, prisoners generally serve 75 percent of their sentence
before being eligible for parole. A Spanish Supreme Court judge
ruled in 2006 that each request for a reduction in sentence for good
behavior must be applied to each sentence individually, meaning it
is now much more difficult for criminals prosecuted on multiple

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counts related to trafficking to see parole.

23. (SBU) Checklist 27 C. Article 313 and the Organic Law 11/2003
cover forced labor. The sentencing guidelines are 4-8 years in
prison for the person who, directly or indirectly, promotes or
facilitates human trafficking from, in transit within, or to Spain.
The GOS worked diligently on a companion strategy, its National Plan
against Forced Labor throughout 2009 and it is nearly complete,
according to MFA sources in early February 2010.

24. (SBU) Checklist 27 D. The penalty for rape is 6-12 years in
prison, increasing to a possible 15 years with aggravating
circumstances. The penalty for forcible sexual assault is 1-4 years
in prison, 4-10 years with aggravating circumstances. Prescribed
penalties for encouraging, favoring, or facilitating the trafficking
of persons from, in transit within, or to Spain for the purpose of
sexual exploitation or forced labor now stand at 5-10 years, with a
possible 12-15 years with aggravating circumstances.

25. (SBU) The GOS has ratified all of the mentioned instruments, and
the dates of ratification are:
-- ILO Convention 182 (April 2, 2001)
-- ILO Convention 29 (August 29, 1932)
-- ILO Convention 105 (November 6, 1967)
-- Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child
(December 18, 2001)
-- Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons,
Especially Women and Children (March 1, 2002)
The Council of Europe's Convention to Fight Trafficking in Persons
entered into force in Spain on August 1, 2009, becoming the first
"legally binding international instrument" that addresses this
problem in a comprehensive manner. It provides for a period of at
least 30 days for victims to consider whether they wish to cooperate
with authorities as well as receive medical and psychological
assistance and the right to compensation.

26. (SBU) Checklist 27 E. The Embassy engaged with relevant Spanish
authorities to reinforce the importance of law enforcement and
judicial statistics. Our contacts in the SNP, GC, and Ministries of
Interior and Justice facilitated our access to prosecution data.
Spanish authorities track TIP cases separately from illegal
immigration and false documentation. Under Spanish labor laws, the
government treats as traffickers and criminally prosecutes employers
who confiscate workers' passports and use physical or sexual abuse
to keep workers in a state of service. Traffickers serve an average
of 75 percent of their sentence before being eligible for parole,
but Spanish penal law limits the number of traffickers who receive
early parole.

27. (SBU) Continue Checklist 27 E. For the first time, the State's
Office of the Prosecutor has included in its annual Memoir, specific
information about the number of accusations issued, as well as about
the number of victims involved, and the number of people accused.
The Special Prosecutor for TIP crimes has informed the Embassy that
in 2008 his office started 21 cases of sexual exploitation,
affecting 104 victims, and 57 defendants. Final data for 2009
should be available in October 2010. Additional information on
specific TIP-related investigations, convictions and sentencing in
Spain was available on-line through a subscription service to the
Spanish affiliate of WESTLAW (www.westlaw.es). In 2009, our best,
preliminary information indicates the government prosecuted 86
people in 26 cases regarding trafficking and secured 60 convictions
with an average sentence of more than seven and a half years. Sixty
percent of those convicted received a sentence of greater than 4
years while all of the 60 convictions we found were for sentences of
1 year or more. Fifty-eight percent of the 60 convictions received
a fine.

28. (SBU) Checklist 27 F. The GOS provides specialized

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anti-trafficking training to law enforcement agencies. Training is
provided to new recruits at the SNP academy in Avila, which offers a
general version of TIP awareness during basic training and then
offers a more detailed version for Inspectors and sub-Inspectors.
NGOs continue to remain active in helping law enforcement agencies
devise specialized training curriculum for officers who will be
working trafficking cases. Officials from Proyecto Esperanza and
other NGOs participated throughout the reporting period, at the
invitation of the SNP, in a "Specialized Course on Trafficking in
Persons Investigations." NGOs continue to tell us the SNP are
increasingly sensitized to and trained for the special demands of
TIP investigations. During an Embassy-hosted DVC between Spanish
TIP officials and G/TIP Ambassador Luis CdeBaca (Ref B), an
SNP/UCRIF Inspector remarked that - compared to even five years ago
- he personally sees considerably more TIP awareness within the
police force. The Office of the Prosecutor works closely with the
Spanish Network Against Trafficking in Persons. On January 18,
2010, the Office of the Prosecutor in Galicia and the Autonomous
Government of Galicia signed an agreement establishing a pilot
project in which a regional prosecutor would work with NGOs to help
TIP victims overcome their fears and self-identify themselves to
authorities as TIP victims. The project also establishes a
wide-ranging program of victim assistance to help them. Spanish
prosecutors inform Post that, if the results in Galicia are
successful, the central government's intention is to have all of
Spain's autonomous communities create similar programs.

29. (SBU) Checklist 27 G. The GOS has bilateral accords with
several countries that are major sources of TIP victims in Spain,
and the GOS regularly cooperates in the investigation and
prosecution of trafficking cases.

30. (SBU) Checklist 27 H-J. The GOS can extradite persons charged
with trafficking, including its own nationals, but there have been
no instances during the reporting period of the GOS extraditing
Spanish nationals charged with TIP offenses. The GOS also has
bilateral agreements with TIP source countries to extradite persons
who are charged with trafficking. Spanish officials from the
President on down are committed to fighting TIP, and we have no
evidence of any Spanish government involvement in or tolerance of
human trafficking.

31. (SBU) Continue Checklist 27 H-J. There was an isolated incident
of corruption in the greater Barcelona area in March 2009 in which a
UCRIF Inspector, Jose Javier Martin Puyal, allegedly was caught
attempting to bribe a brothel owner 3,000 euros (roughly USD $4,175)
in exchange for turning a blind eye to alleged trafficking for the
purposes of forced prostitution. The ensuing investigation revealed
the alleged involvement of 15 individuals including police,
ex-police, business owners and lawyers. Contacts in the Ministry of
Interior tell Post that while the Spanish judicial system presumes
the innocence of the accused, Martin Puyal is in preventative
custody in jail while two other SNP officials are out on bail. The
SNP has suspended the employment and salary of each of the three
officials as they await trial.

32. (SBU) Checklist 27 L-M. The GOS is aware of the requirements of
the 2005 Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA)
for countries that contribute troops to international peacekeeping
efforts. Our Spanish military contacts tell us that as part of
their pre-deployment training, Spanish government troops receive TIP
awareness training. We have no information of any Spanish nationals
deployed abroad engaging in or facilitating severe forms of
trafficking. Neither Post nor the Spanish MFA were aware of any
reports in 2009 suggesting that Spanish nationals traveled abroad on
child sex tourism. Spain's child sexual abuse laws do have
extraterritorial coverage and thus Spanish nationals could be
prosecuted and convicted for acts committed in known child sex
tourism destinations. In 2009, Spain completed its second Action

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Plan against Child Sexual Exploitation, the most recent of which
covered 2006-09. Save the Children informs Post that there will be
a third three-year Action Plan that is currently being drafted.


33. (SBU) Checklist 28 A. As part of the implementation of the
National Plan, which was officially approved in December 2008 and
came in to force in January 2009, the Ministry of Equality in July
convened the inaugural session of the Social Forum against the
Trafficking in Persons for the Purposes of Sexual Exploitation. As
of February 2010, the Forum - comprised of the inter-ministerial
group, NGOs and regional and municipal government officials - has
met twice to discuss TIP issues. As evidence that the government
incorporates the feedback provided by the NGOs in the Forum, a
working committee has been established to investigate labor
exploitation of minors, according to MFA officials.

34. (SBU) Continue Checklist 28 A. TIP victims - as well as those
of domestic violence - can call 016, toll-free nationwide, to
receive 24-hour assistance from the Ministry of Labor and Social
Affairs. Operators speak Castilian Spanish, Catalan, Galician,
Basque, English and French. The Women's Institute, an autonomous
entity affiliated with the Ministry of Equality, also offers a phone
number for sexually exploited female TIP victims: 900 191 010.

35. (SBU) Continue Checklist 28 A. The GOS sends victims to NGOs,
which provide temporary shelter and access to legal, medical, and
psychological services. The victims are provided legal protection
and temporary or permanent residency status if they cooperate with
the GOS in going after the traffickers. Regional and local
governments also provided victim assistance through NGOs. Medical
attention, including emergency care, is provided through the
national health care system. Project Esperanza and Save the
Children inform Post they are unaware of any specialized victim
protection services offered by the GOS to child victims or males who
are forced labor trafficking victims.

36. (SBU) Continue Checklist 28 A. Two regional governments signed
agreements to guarantee the comprehensive protection of victims who
collaborate in the prosecution of organized crime networks that
engage in TIP. As mentioned in Paragraph 28, Alberto Nunez Feijoo,
the President of the Autonomous Community of Galicia, and the
region's chief prosecutor on January 18, 2010 signed a Protocol on
the Adoption of Measures of Prevention, Investigation and Treatment
of Female Trafficking Victims for the Purposes of Sexual
Exploitation. Three weeks earlier, Esperanza Aguirre, President of
the Autonomous Community of Madrid signed a similar accord with the
chief prosecutor in that region, although the Madrid version
addressed all kinds of victims of violence, not just TIP victims.

37. (SBU) Continue Checklist 28 B. Spain has several victim care
facilities which are accessible to trafficking victims, and most are
run under the auspices of a network of anti-TIP NGOs with funding
provided by the government and private sources. As Spanish
nationals are rarely if ever trafficking victims, the vast majority
of the assistance is provided to foreign trafficking victims.
Article 59 of Spain's immigration law paved the way for recognizing
the rights of those victims who have reported a crime and have
collaborated effectively with police and legal authorities in the
breaking up of TIP networks. The law establishes a legal mechanism
for victims of trafficking to either obtain work and residence
permits to remain in Spain, as well as welfare benefits or to obtain
funding to return to their countries of origin.

38. (SBU) Continue Checklist 28 B. The National Action Plan calls
for increases across the board in the support the government will
provide to anti-TIP NGOs. As part of the implementation of the
National Plan to Combat TIP for the purposes of Sexual Exploitation,

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the Council of Ministers in March approved the allotment of two
million euros (roughly USD $2.78 million) toward the creation of a
TIP victim assistance fund. This money will cover the costs
associated with specific programs (medical, legal, and
psychological) for TIP victims and the will support the actions of
NGOs who work in support of combating TIP. The money will be
allotted to help NGOs improve the quality of care and protection
that victims - including those in the country illegally - receive.
The funds are also designed to improve victim's security and to
prevent their exploiters' from influencing their testimony.

39. (SBU) Continue Checklist 28 B. Because Spain's central
government has devolved funding for social issues to the regional
level, the bulk of funding to protect TIP victims derives from the
autonomous regional governments. To use Proyecto Esperanza as an
example, the regional government in 2009 provided 373,655 euros
(approximately USD 520,000). At the national level, the Ministry of
Education, Social Policy and Sports provided 72,340 euros (just over
USD $100,000) while the Ministry of Equality provided 61,395 euros
(roughly USD $85,000). The Madrid municipal government gave 20,000
euros (roughly USD 27,800). The level of funding from the regional
and national governments was higher than in 2008, as was Proyecto
Esperanza's overall budget.

40. (SBU) Checklist 28 C. The government funds NGOs to provide
shelter, counseling, legal and psychological assistance, job
training, placement and reinsertion services, and assistance in
obtaining visas that are available for those who testify against
traffickers. NGOs submit annual grant proposals to the government
to furnish services to victims. In addition to a number of women
who remained in its shelters since 2008, Proyecto Esperanza took in
47 new victims in 2009. Of the 47, 17 were from Africa, 14 were
from Eastern Europe, eight were from Latin America and seven were
from Asia. This breakdown by nationality shows a strong increase in
the proportion of African (primarily Nigerian) and Asian (mostly
Thai) TIP victims. Thirteen were between 18-21 years old and
another 13 were 22-25 years old. Nine victims were ages 26-30,
seven were older than age 30, four victims' ages were unknown and
one claimed to be a minor but was judged by the GOS to be an adult.
Among the 47 new cases, 27 cooperated with authorities by denouncing
the trafficking networks that had exploited them. Fifteen of the 47
returned to their country of origin after receiving victim

41. (SBU) Checklist 28 D-E. The GOS provides residence permits to
those victims who provide information essential to the investigation
and prosecution of traffickers. The law permits trafficking victims
to remain in the country if they agree to testify against the
perpetrators. Spain has a witness-protection law that allows a
witness to remain anonymous. After legal proceedings conclude,
victims are given the option of remaining in the country or
returning to their countries of origin. Victims are encouraged to
help police investigate trafficking cases and to testify against

42. (SBU) Checklist 28 F-H. Spain's new plan to combat TIP formally
establishes the referral of TIP victims to NGOs, although in
practice, victims were already being referred directly by Spanish
law enforcement to anti-TIP NGOs, who are then able to provide both
short- and long-term care. In July 2009, the Office of the Attorney
General in Spain released its annual report for 2008, in which it
reported that the SNP and the GC disrupted 263 TIP networks and
related services and attended 1,618 victims. Spanish authorities
tell us they are working on a mechanism for screening trafficking
victims among persons involved in the decriminalized commercial sex
trade. Post fully expects the SNP once again to furnish us with a
restricted internal report that provides detailed information on TIP
enforcement trends, including TIP-related arrests and the number of
trafficking victims identified during the reporting period. Post

MADRID 00000183 010.3 OF 016

will provide this information septel.

43. (SBU) Checklist 28 I. The GOS makes every effort to respect the
rights of TIP victims, and TIP and prostitution victims are not
considered criminals and do not go to jail. They are sent to NGOs
that ensure proper care is provided to them. In the past, at least
some TIP victims who refused to testify against the perpetrators
were jailed and deported as illegal aliens, but our contacts tell us
that is not routine. If victims are in serious danger they may even
be provided with a new identity in order to help ensure protection.

44. (SBU) Checklist 28 I. The Ministry of Interior (MOI) is
reconsidering the way it handles TIP victims, according to Spanish
press reports in January 2010. Until now, both traffickers and
victims were arrested at the same time, and on occasion they were
initially taken to the same Police facilities, where the traffickers
threatened the victims into not cooperating with authorities. The
Police authorities have started working on a "best practices" code
for which they have requested the cooperation of police agents who
investigate these crimes. The Ministry's intention is to increase -
by the end of 2011 - the number of arrests of traffickers by eight
percent and to double the financial investigations of the criminal
networks. Also by the end of 2011, all police agents in charge of
investigations - including those participating in peacekeeping
operations - will have received specific training on TIP. The MOI
also will increase by five percent its workforce in the fight
against TIP, and would like for all victims who report these crimes
to have their situation regularized in Spain as soon as possible,
for which the MOI will propose to reduce the waiting time down to
four days for these women to receive the residency permits. Before
the end of 2010, the police are supposed to release a brochure in
several languages about the rights of the TIP victims, as well as
the assistance they may be able to obtain.

45. (SBU) Checklist 28 J. The GOS encourages victims to assist in
the investigation and prosecution of traffickers and provides
residence permits to those victims who provide information essential
to the investigation and prosecution of traffickers. The law
permits trafficking victims to remain in the country if they agree
to testify against the perpetrators. Spain has a witness-protection
law that allows a witness to remain anonymous. After legal
proceedings conclude, victims are given the option of remaining in
the country or returning to their countries of origin. Victims are
encouraged to help police investigate trafficking cases and to
testify against traffickers. Proyecto Esperanza notes that,
traditionally, victims who cooperate receive a residency permit
valid for one year, which is renewable for a two-year period if the
victim obtains a legal job. At this point, to destigmitize victims,
they are asking for the renewal not as TIP victims but as any other
immigrant would do. If the victim can secure a second renewal for a
total of five years, then the permit is for permanent residency.
Consequently, victims who change their minds about collaborating can
reconsider at any of these junctures. If the victims opt not to
cooperate and wish to return to their country of origin, the GOS
will work with them on an assisted return.

46. (SBU) Continue Checklist 28 J. A high-profile incident
involving alleged trafficking in persons for the purposes of forced
labor occurred in Barcelona in June 2009. In Catalonia's largest
law enforcement operation to date, 750 agents of the Mossos
d'Esquadra (Catalonia's regional police force) searched 72
establishments and apartments with the objective of detaining the
individuals in charge of taking advantage of hundreds of fellow
Chinese immigrants' labor in exchange for very low salaries. The
raid, known as Operation Wei, was directed at identifying the
leaders of the exploitation network and their connections to the
Chinese mafia. Most of the alleged victims of the operation were
Chinese immigrants subjected to unhealthy working conditions
including long work shifts and being made to sleep in the workshops.

MADRID 00000183 011.3 OF 016

A thorough investigation by the U.S. Consulate in Barcelona
revealed that the Mossos and two human rights NGOs considered the
matter a labor rights issue rather than a trafficking issue. The
detained individuals were suspected of violating workers' rights, a
crime that is subject to two to five years in prison. None of the
450 workers self-identified themselves as trafficking victims who
were being exploited, explaining instead that their culture did not
object to the long hours and the working conditions they
experienced. According to the NGO Accem, most of the workers were
in Spain legally.

47. (SBU) Checklist 28 K-L. The GOS continued to fund and encourage
NGOs to provide specialized training for government officials in
recognizing trafficking and providing assistance to trafficked
victims. During the reporting period, this training took place in
the cities of Madrid and Merida and the region of Extremadura and
has been ongoing in recent years. Training continues to be
available for immigration officials and social service providers.
NGOs remained active in helping law enforcement agencies devise
specialized training curriculum for officers who will be working
trafficking cases. Proyecto Esperanza officials provided separate,
specialized TIP training workshops and roundtables for the SNP, the
GC, the Bar Association of Madrid, and others in 2009. Spain is
generally not a source country for trafficking, and our contacts in
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs are not aware of any Spanish
nationals abroad who are either victims of trafficking or who have
participated in or facilitated severe forms of trafficking. If such
cases do arise, the GOS tells us they would provide medical aid,
shelter and financial help to its repatriated nationals. Our MFA
contacts further confirm that Spain provides training on protection
and assistance to TIP victims to its embassies and consulates

48. (SBU) Checklist 28 M. The Spanish Network against Trafficking
in Persons formed in 2006 to increase the effectiveness and
efficiency of its work with trafficking victims. The Network is
currently made up of more than 20 NGOs, including Proyecto
Esperanza, the Association for the Prevention, Reintegration and
Attention of Prostituted Women (APRAMP), Accem, and the Spanish
chapters of Save the Children, Red Cross and Women's Link Worldwide.
The Network is committed to "prevent, identify, assist, protect and
ensure the healing of trafficking victims in Spain." In February
2009, it publicly presented its "Basic Guide to Identify and Protect
Trafficking in Persons victims" to help identify TIP victims. The
Embassy maintains very close contacts with Spain's anti-TIP network
and one of its senior coordinators has participated in the
Department's International Visitor's Program. The Spanish
government contracts with and subsidizes NGOs and other programs
that provide shelter and vital services for trafficking victims and
witnesses, to include protection, housing, and counseling. Several
NGOs operated shelters in Madrid and Barcelona, provided assistance
with medical and legal services, and acted as liaison with law
enforcement for victims who chose to testify against traffickers.
Some of these NGOs have a housing and reinsertion program for
victims of trafficking and smuggling who wish to remain in Spain and
will help women apply for residence visas. These NGOs received many
referrals directly from police. The Catalonian regional and
municipal government contracted with Caritas, other NGOs, and
sometimes religious organizations for the same services. Spanish
NGOs in Madrid receive funding at the federal level (Ministry of
Labor and Social Services), regional level (Madrid province) and
city level (Madrid City).

49. (SBU) Continue Checklist 28 M. Madrid-based Proyecto Esperanza
held a conference on December 2, 2009 to mark its 10th anniversary,
during which time it has aided 520 female human trafficking victims
from 25 nationalities. Proyecto Esperanza provides a 24-hour phone
number (607 54 25 15) for TIP victims, but the money is not
specifically earmarked for this purpose and Proyecto Esperanza

MADRID 00000183 012.3 OF 016

informs Post that the NGO does not consider this to be a national

50. (SBU) Checklist 28 M. The SNP also provides possible TIP
victims with sturdy, laminated business cards from APRAMP, in
partnership with the Ministry of Labor and Immigration. These cards
notify potential victims of their rights and inform them how to seek
a variety of available assistance, including lodging, medical
treatment, job search assistance, and administrative help. The
APRAMP phone number on these cards is listed as 609 589 479.


51. (SBU) Checklist 29 A. In fulfillment of objectives called for
in its national action plan against TIP for the purposes of sexual
exploitation, Spain in October 2009 began a broad variety of
anti-trafficking information campaigns. The efforts were so
sustained and high profile that Post would find it extraordinarily
difficult to attempt to gauge the cumulative size of the audience
reached. In addition to the public seeing the various flyers,
banners, exhibits and other displays, these initiatives were
extensively covered in the print, broadcast and Internet-based

52. (SBU) Continue Checklist 29 A. The Ministry of Equality in
October - timed to coincide with the European day against
Trafficking - sponsored a photographic exhibit entitled "Don't be an
accomplice" to build awareness of TIP and to decrease demand for
sexual exploitation. The Minister of Equality made a public call
for no one to be an accomplice in the trafficking of women and
girls, whether in their capture, the advertisement of their sexual
exploitation, or a client of their forced services.

53. (SBU) Continue Checklist 29 A. The Ministry of Equality in
November began to distribute more than five million beer coasters to
bars, cafeterias, restaurants, and nighttime leisure locations
belonging to the Spanish Youth Hostel Network (FEHR), which has a
membership of 350,000 establishments. On one side of the coaster is
the slogan "No to Sexual Exploitation" and on the other is one of
four different messages, each aimed at building awareness among men
who pay for sexual services, highlighting that the majority of women
who work as prostitutes are sexually exploited by organized crime

54. (SBU) Continue Checklist 29 A. The Ministry of Equality in
December teamed with British actress Emma Thompson to launch an
interactive art exhibit, entitled "The Journey," in Retiro Park
(Madrid's equivalent to New York's Central Park) to build awareness
of organized crime networks that that traffic in women for the
purposes of sexual exploitation. This effort was co-sponsored by
the Region of Madrid, the City of Madrid, and The Network.
According to Proyecto Esperanza, the exhibition had 4,000 visitors.

55. (SBU) Continue Checklist 29 A. Local governments, notably those
in Spain's largest cities of Madrid, Barcelona, and Seville
continued efforts to discourage prostitution (please see paragraphs
59-63 for a more detailed discussion of GOS efforts to reduce
demand). The Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs and the Ministry
of Equality in November and December funded and co-sponsored a
series of documentary films on TIP for the purposes of sexual
exploitation. The films were shown in Barcelona, Bilbao, Madrid and
Toledo. A different documentary was presented in four successive

56. (SBU) Checklist 29 B. During the reporting period, the Spanish
government continued to monitor immigration and emigration patterns
for evidence of trafficking, and law enforcement agencies screened
for potential trafficking victims at Spain's air and seaports, and

MADRID 00000183 013.3 OF 016

along its border with France. An ongoing trend is the increasing
frequency of individual traffickers deceiving their victims by
establishing a relationship with them by pretending they were their
boyfriends or by capitalizing on a pre-existing relationship as a
family friend. The trafficker and victim arrived in Spain legally
and with legal passports, and once inside the country the trafficker
would send his victim into a trafficking network.

57. (SBU) Checklist 29 C. Spain's formal inter-agency mechanism for
coordination and communication is the anti-TIP working group,
established in 2006 by Spanish First Vice President Maria Teresa
Fernandez de la Vega. Working-level officials in the Ministry of
Equality now oversee this group and are in frequent contact with the

58. (SBU) Checklist 29 D. As has been detailed, virtually all of
Spain's anti-TIP efforts were in fulfillment of the 2009-2012 plan
to combat TIP for the purposes of sexual exploitation, which
provides a broad policy framework to combat TIP with a three-pronged
focus: victim assistance, fighting against trafficking networks,
and information campaigns to build public awareness. VP de la Vega
tasked the Ministries of Equality, Interior, Justice, Labor, Foreign
Affairs, and Education to produce a comprehensive plan to combat
trafficking in persons, which was made approved by the Council of
Ministers on December 12, 2008. The GOS shared early drafts of the
TIP plan with Eva Biaudet, the OSCE's then special representative on
TIP, and with relevant Spanish NGOs for review and comment. To
re-cap, the plan specifically establishes:
- A reflection period of at least 30 days for TIP victims who are
in the country illegally to decide whether or not they will
cooperate with the GOS. In the meantime they will benefit from
housing, protection, medical and psychological assistance, free
legal assistance, interpretation services, and some financial
- "Cautionary" confiscation of traffickers' assets at the beginning
of the process, although only a condemnatory sentence would make the
seizure firm.
- Creation of a fund with the assets confiscated from the mafias to
attend victims and to strengthen police actions.
- Creation of units to attend victims, as well as the creation of
shelter centers with integral attention programs.
- Use of biometric identifiers in visas and residency permits.
- A new control mechanism in ports, airports, and other
transportation means to identify possible cases of trafficking.
- Research about the consequences of trafficking activities on
their victims, and ways to help them.
- Information campaigns addressed to travel agencies, and
organizers of events involving large crowds.
- Creation of a Forum Against Trafficking made of public
institutions, NGOs, and others.
- Creation of an inter-ministerial Coordinating Group to follow up
the Plan (Ministries of Equality, Foreign Affairs, Justice,
Interior, Education, Social) which was established in January 2009.

59. (SBU) Checklist 29 E. At the national and local levels, Spain
instituted a variety of measures to reduce the demand for commercial
sex acts, including a number of measures discussed in Paragraph 55
in response to Checklist 29A. As part of this effort, the central
government undertook a campaign throughout 2009 to pressure
newspapers not to publish classified ads that publicize fairly
explicit services offered by prostitutes, many of whom are thought
to be TIP victims. The Minister of Equality met with the editors of
several newspapers and the First Vice President met with the
Federation of Spanish Journalists to discuss the issue. Several
NGOs and civic society leaders supported this effort by accusing
numerous Spanish newspapers of hypocrisy because they tout an
editorial line that condemns TIP for the purposes of sexual
exploitation while earning millions of dollars per year for
publishing these ads. El Pais, Spain's leading daily publishes the

MADRID 00000183 014.3 OF 016

greatest amount of these ads, which reportedly generates about five
million euros (nearly USD $7 million) worth of income per year. The
government's efforts secured a victory in December 2009, when
conservative newspaper La Razon, Spain's fifth-leading daily, with
187,000 daily readers, banned classified ads publicizing commercial
sexual services.

60. (SBU) Continue Checklist 29 E. In August, El Pais's publication
of graphic photos of prostitutes practicing sex in the streets of
downtown Barcelona sparked a national debate on how best to address
prostitution and curb demand. On September 22, 2009 the national
Congress overwhelmingly rejected a proposal to regulate
prostitution. Most political parties in Congress indicated that it
does not make sense to talk about the legalization or prohibition of
prostitution, arguing instead that the only option is to fight the
mafias that exploit women. Media reports and government officials
regularly suggested that 90 percent of prostitutes in Spain are
sexually exploited and engage in prostitution against their will.

61. (SBU) Continue Checklist 29 E. In the absence of national
legislation on the issue, the municipal governments of Spain's
largest cities took differing measures. As mentioned in Paragraph
54 in answer to Checklist 29A, Madrid's city hall co-sponsored the
exhibQion entitled "The Journey" to dissuade potential clients of
prostitutes. Madrid also increased police pressure, although
neighbors continue reporting about the presence of prostitutes and
their pimps in the streets. These actions built upon efforts in
2007, when 31 video cameras were installed in one of the city's
largest parks, where prostitutes often gathered at night, and in
2008, when another 30 cameras were installed in Madrid's downtown

62. (SBU) Continue Checklist 29 E. Barcelona Mayor Jordi Hereu
sought national and/or regional legislation that could help
municipalities to control prostitution in public areas, going beyond
the debate about legalizing or not prostitution. In the meantime,
Barcelona increased the number of municipal police in the streets,
and started campaigns discouraging men to seek those services in the
public areas.

63. (SBU) Continue Checklist 29 E. Seville, Spain's fourth largest
city, in November 2009 unveiled a five-year, Integrated Plan Against
TIP, Prostitution and Other Forms of Sexual Exploitation. The plan
will run during 2010-2015 and has a budget of 500,000 euros (roughly
USD $700,000). The city hall emphasizes that its plan is a
victim-centered approach that will fine clients up to 3,000 euros
(roughly USD $4,175) for having sex with prostitutes in the streets.
Fees collected will be applied toward social programs. As a
further part of its efforts to curb demand, Seville in September
began a public awareness campaign entitled, "Paying for Sex is
Investing in Violence," which is a follow-up to last year's
campaign, entitled, "Are you worth so little that you have to pay
for it?". This year's campaign has a budget of approximately 15,000
euros (nearly USD $21,000).

64. (SBU) Checklist 29 F. The Spanish government has strict rules
on the books for Spanish nationals caught participating in
international child sex tourism. The MFA informed Post it had seen
no information in 2009 regarding Spanish nationals have traveled
abroad on child sex tourism. Spain's child sexual abuse laws do
have extraterritorial coverage and thus Spanish nationals could be
prosecuted and convicted for acts committed in known child sex
tourism destinations. GOS officials tell Post that the Ministry of
Industry, Tourism and Commerce in 2009 partnered with the World
Tourist Organization to discourage child sex tourism. The GOS also
maintained a website, www.NoHayExcusas.org, from a former campaign
with UNICEF to warn potential child sex tourists that they may feel
a sensation of legal immunity when they are abroad in places such as
Asia or Latin America, but that Spanish law would still apply to

MADRID 00000183 015.3 OF 016

them upon their return. When Mission Madrid receives information on
pedophiles and sexual predators, this information is then included
in the Consular Lookout and Support System.

65. (SBU) Continue Checklist 29 F. The new Penal Code currently
being debated by Congress and expected to be approved in 2010 will
include the crime "abuse of and sexual attack on minors," with jail
sentences that range from 3-6 years (the current penalties are from
1-3 years). If violence is involved, the penalty will be from 5-10
years in jail. The penalty for sexual relations with a minor will
be 8-12 years in jail if violence is not involved, or from 12-15
years if violence is involved.

66. (SBU) Continue Checklist 29 F. This new Penal Code also will
establish as a crime the recruiting of minors for pornographic
shows, profiting from minors' participation in pornographic shows,
or supplying children for use in pornography. Jail sentences for
those promoting the prostitution of minors will be of 1-5 years
(currently 1-4 years), and if the minor is under 13 years old, the
sentence will be of 4-6 years. Recruiting minors for their
prostitution will be punished with 4-6 years of jail, and if the
minor is under 13 years old, the sentence will be from 5-10 years.
Recruiting of minors for pornographic shows will be punished with
1-5 years in jail (currently 1-4 years), and if the victim is under
13, the sentence will be from 5-9 years (currently 4-8 years). The
new code also will punish prostitution clients for engaging in
sexual relations with a minor or a person with disabilities.

67. (SBU) Checklist 29 G. We have no information on any Spanish
military officials deployed abroad engaging in or facilitating forms
of trafficking, or exploiting victims of such trafficking. On
February 6, 2009, the GOS approved a royal decree with a new ethics
code for the Spanish Armed Forces, which among other things, obliges
the military to protect the defenseless, such as women and children,
from prostitution or sexual violence. Post understands that
peacekeepers are included among the Spanish military who receive
pre-deployment trafficking awareness training.


68. (SBU) Checklist 30 A. As this cable has detailed, Spain's
central government throughout 2009 partnered with foreign countries,
regional governments within Spain, city halls, NGOs, civil society,
and multilateral organizations.

69. (SBU) Continue Checklist 30 A. According to press reports,
representatives of every political party in the Spanish Congress of
Deputies created a working group in November to combine forces to
help make the battle against TIP a Europe-wide priority. Socialist
Deputy Carmen Calvo, the chairwoman of the Equality Committee who
led the initiative, publicly stated that Spain wanted to use its
stint as rotating President of the European Union (EU) during
January-June 2010 to advance new legislation against TIP within the
EU, to foster closer anti-TIP cooperation by police among
member-states, and to build public awareness of the issue among the
European public.

70. (SBU) Continue Checklist 30 A. Spain in December 2009 received
a positive assessment in the OSCE's annual report on combating TIP.
The Office of the Special Representative (SR) and Coordinator for
Combating Trafficking in Human Beings praised Spain for undertaking
"important initiatives and concrete and substantial steps in
compliance with the recommendations" which the SR previously
provided for Spain. The OSCE commended Spain for, among other
things, the establishment of a broad, multi-disciplinary
consultative forum with civil society and Spain's ratification of
the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in
Human Beings, which went into force in Spain in August 2009.

MADRID 00000183 016.3 OF 016

71. (SBU) Continue Checklist 30 A. Post does not have access to an
advance copy of the soon-to-be-published OSCE report specifically on
TIP in Spain, in response to Madrid's invitation in 2007 for the
OSCE to perform a peer review of the TIP situation in Spain and
Spanish efforts to address it. An MFA official who has read the
roughly 100-page draft report describes it as "fair" and suggests
the "tone is perfect." Our MFA contact also reveals that the report
commends the Spanish government's openness and cooperation with the

72. (SBU) Continue Checklist 30 A. In October Spanish TIP officials
from the Office of the First Vice President, the Ministry of
Interior, the SNP, the Prosecutor's office, and CICO participated in
a DVC with G/TIP Ambassador CdeBaca. As noted in Ref B, the Spanish
reacted positively to suggestions that the USG and Spain explore
ways to partner our anti-TIP programs in third-countries to
eliminate duplication of effort while also playing to each other's
strengths. Spain cooperates with the governments of trafficking
victims' countries of origin. A Ministry of Equality official
informs Post that Spain is especially active in working Latin
American governments. During the most recent reporting period,
Spanish officials worked with Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay, and Central
America. Spain cooperates with Romania and Bulgaria - as countries
of origin for TIP victims - through the European Union.

73. (SBU) Checklist 30 B. Specifically, Spain offers developmental
aid through its USAID-equivalent, police cooperation and training
courses on how to combat trafficking in persons.


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