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Cablegate: Compliance Diplomacy Visit to Dar Es Salaam: Dr.


DE RUEHDR #1059/01 1781239
P 271239Z JUN 06





E.O. 12958: N/A

1. (U) SUMMARY: VCI/PDAS Ford and his VCI team visited Dar
es Salaam June 19-23, 2006, to hold compliance diplomacy
discussions with key host country interlocutors and embassy
staff on the U. S. approach to verification, compliance
assessment, and compliance enforcement of arms control,
nonproliferation, and disarmament agreements and commitments
related to WMD and missiles. Dar es Salaam was the first
stop on his compliance diplomacy tour that will include
Pretoria, Accra, and Banjul. In Banjul, he will attend the
African Union (AU) Summit meeting where he will meet with
officials from as many additional African states as
scheduling permits. He is emphasizing those states that have
seats on the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) or those
that are, or could be, important regional voices on
nonproliferation issues.

2. (U) All meetings in Dar es Salaam were positive, with
officials indicating they agreed that U.S.-Tanzanian
relations were at a very good point (and improving),
understood the U.S. views on compliance policy issues, and
looked forward to working with the U.S. to improve
cooperation and coordination in such matters. They also
expressed their appreciation for the United States, interest
in whether Tanzania had any need for U.S. assistance with
compliance-related issues. In this regard, the Defense
Minister specifically requested U.S. help with drafting
implementing legislation for the Chemical Weapons Convention
(CWC). MFA officials echoed that need. Officials from the
Ministry of Higher Education, Science, and Technology also
noted that they would be interested in more specifically
bilateral (as opposed to IAEA) assistance on nuclear-related
issues, especially in the areas of nuclear safety and
security. END SUMMARY.

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3. (U) Meetings were held with Ministers and with senior
officials at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (twice),
Ministry of Defense and National Service, Ministry of Higher
Education, Science and Technology, and the President,s
Office. Discussions on the Tanzanian side were led by the
Minister, or the most senior official present. It should be
noted that the Tanzanians viewed the meetings as important
and in spite of the fact that Parliament was meeting in
another city (Dodoma), Minister of Defense Kapuya and other-
4. (U) At all meetings the PDAS and the delegation opened
discussions by emphasizing that this compliance diplomacy
visit was not a criticism of Tanzanian compliance with its
arms control and nonproliferation treaty obligations, but
rather a recognition of Tanzania,s commitment to good
international citizenship in trying to implement internal
compliance policies vis-a-vis the Nuclear Non-Proliferation
Treaty (NPT), e.g., bringing into force the Additional
Protocol, implementing the Convention on the Physical
Protection of Nuclear Materials, moving forward with
declarations and other steps under the CWC, and subscribing
to the Hague Code of Conduct (HCOC) on missile proliferation.
The delegation said that Tanzania,s good example in these
respects helped make it a model for other States,
particularly its African neighbors, and provided a good
foundation upon which to build a closer cooperative
relationship in developing and implementing compliance
policies in the multilateral arena, i.e., working together
better to ensure that nonproliferation regimes successfully
address the compliance challenges that confront them today.
Such successful cooperation, the U.S. representatives told
the Tanzanians, was the key to ensuring that nonproliferation
regimes yielded their intended benefits to all parties.

5. (U) The Tanzanians, for their part, all emphasized that
they were a poor nation that did not possess missiles or WMD
and had as its primary concerns improving the economic and
energy situation and eliminating poverty. Nevertheless, they
stressed their commitment to and successes in complying with
nonproliferation regimes, and welcomed the prospect of
working more closely with the United States, both
internationally and (in particular) with regard to U.S.
assistance in capacity-building in Tanzania. Initially, most
officials seemed concerned that the purpose of the trip was
to chastise them for some compliance shortfall or to raise
concerns about a potential WMD program, but warmed markedly
when it became clear that the U.S. delegation instead sought
to initiate an ongoing dialogue on compliance policy issues.
All meetings included broad discussions of the role of
compliance policy in preserving the integrity of

nonproliferation regimes and in ensuring that all States
Party obtain the security and other benefits of such regimes,
and of the need for effective multilateral cooperation in
meeting contemporary compliance challenges.

6. (U) The U.S. delegation emphasized that all States Party
bear a responsibility in this regard, and that all nations
can contribute to verification efforts and the development of
sound compliance policy in some way or another. Countries
such as Tanzania, for example, serve as role models for
internal compliance and credible voices in international fora
in support of collective compliance policy efforts to return
violators to compliance and deter future would-be
proliferators. (The U.S. delegation provided the Tanzanians
with copies of VCI Bureau compliance fact sheets, relevant
papers, and the unclassified NCR for 2002-3 in both CD-ROM
and hard copy format.) The Tanzanians expressed interest in
working together more closely in these regards, but stressed
that they have few resources. All meetings included
Tanzanian expressions of interest in U.S. assistance for
capacity-building and domestic compliance assistance.

7. (U) In a meeting with members of the U.S. delegation
prior to Ford,s arrival, Ambassador Mulamula, head of the
Multilateral Division of the MFA observed that during
Tanzania,s tenure on the UNSC, it had noted that there were
differences of opinion in relation to nonproliferation and
disarmament issues between developed and less-developed
countries, and between nuclear possessor states and those
that were non-possessors. She said Tanzania hoped that
common ground could be achieved. She was especially hopeful
that nations would properly respond to the obligations under
UNSCR 1540. The U.S. delegation indicated that the United
States stood ready to assist nations in meeting all their
compliance obligations, noting in particular the example of
U.S. help for Libya vis-a-vis the CWC and other WMD-related
agreements. Mulamula and MFA Acting Legal Advisor Caroline
Kitana said that Tanzania was not sure how to approach the
challenge of adopting proper legal procedures for CWC
compliance, and would benefit from U.S. help. Mulamula also
indicated that Tanzania intended to ratify the Biological
Weapons Convention (BWC). The Tanzanians voiced some
concerns regarding U.S. compliance with Article VI of the
NPT. The U.S. delegation responded that the United States
took its Article VI obligations seriously and had an
excellent record in that respect, that other nations had
Article VI obligations and that this issue should not
distract countries from the Article II challenges existing
today. In response, Mulamula said she had also raised the
issue with the UK and observed that more U.S. transparency on
Article VI issues would be beneficial. In discussing the
NPT, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Iran,
Mulamula said that she did not understand why the IAEA was
not more willing, as a technical agency, to "take a stand"
against noncompliance.

8. (U) In meetings with the MFA, Ministry of Defense and
National Service, and the Ministry of Higher Education,
Science, and Technology, multiple Tanzanian officials
indicated that they would like to obtain capacity-building
assistance (or, in cases in which assistance efforts
currently exist, greater assistance) in several areas
including development of CWC-implementing legislation and
declarations, control of small arms/light weapons (SA/LW),
radiation detection equipment to deal with nuclear materials
traffic, export controls, combating WMD terrorism, and
radiation detection equipment to deal with nuclear materials
traffic. The Minister of Defense and officials from the
Ministry of Higher Education, Science, and Technology both
stressed that Tanzania had discovered incidents of illicit
nuclear materials trafficking, the latter officials saying
that ten (10) such incidents had occurred, and the Minister
of Defense stressing one incident in particular, and
recognized the danger of such trade and its potential nexus
with terrorism. They also expressed concern about potential
dangers to Tanzanian first-responders (e.g., investigators,
customs officials, and police) from nuclear trafficking.

9. (U) Minister of Defense Kapuya was especially interested
in the prospect of U.S. assistance for Tanzania,s compliance
with CWC obligations, for which his Ministry is now
responsible. Officials present at the Ministry of Defense
meeting also included the Tanzanian colonel designated to
serve as the government,s interim National Authority for CWC
issues. This officer indicated privately that his military
counterpart for nuclear issues would also be interested in
working more closely with the United States. Minister Kapuya
requested that the U.S. provide any model legislation that
Tanzania could use in preparing its national implementing
legislation for the CWC. (Mulamula had made a similar
request, suggesting that such assistance would facilitate

their efforts to engage parliament on this issue.)

10. (U) In discussions with the Ministries of Defense and
National Service and Higher Education, Science, and
Technology, Tanzanian comments alluded to their hope, at some
point in the future, for cooperation on nuclear technology
including nuclear power generation and the disposal of
nuclear waste. Ruth H. Mollel, Permanent Secretary for
Public Service Management in the President,s Office and an
official reportedly very close to President Kikwete, also
pointedly noted that Tanzania has "uranium, lots of it," and
multiple officials noted Tanzania,s great need for
affordable energy.

11. (U) PDAS Ford said that he welcomed Tanzania,s interest
in assistance in capacity-building related to compliance and
nonproliferation-related issues, and described various
efforts that exist (e.g., for help with CWC declarations and
legislation, export control, SA/LW destruction, WMD
Terrorism-related capacity-building, and nuclear materials
security). He said he and the post would work to ensure that
all such requests for additional assistance were passed along
to the appropriate USG office.


12. (U) The U.S. delegation, led by VCI Bureau PDAS Dr.
Christopher Ford, consisted of VCI Senior Advisor for
Noncompliance Harry Heintzelman, VCI Regional Coordinator for
Africa Karolina Walkin, and VCI/CCA Physical Science Officer
and Tanzania coordinator Dr. Donald Clagett. U.S. Embassy
Dar es Salaam was represented by Maureen Latour, Political

13. (U) Tanzanian officers and officials with whom
discussions in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA)
included: Ambassador Charles Mutalemwa, Permanent Secretary
(PS); Ambassador Liberata Mulamula, Head of the Multilateral
Division; Caroline Kitana, Head of the Legal Affairs Unit;
Adadi Rajab, former Director of Criminal Investigation; and
Deus Boniface Kaganda, UN Desk Officer.

14. (U) Discussions with the Ministry of Defense and
National Service included: Minister of Defense Juma Kapuya;
M. S. Msongo, Advisor; Maj. Gen. A.Shimbo, Chief of Military
Intelligence; Brig. Gen. A. L. Mbowe, Acting Commissioner of
Policy and Planning; Col. X. S. Mapunda, HQ Staff Officer;
and Col. C. N. Muzanila, Chief of Staff and Acting Director
of Military Personnel.

15. (U) Discussions with the Ministry of Higher Education,
Science and Technology included: Celestine Gesimba, Director
of Policy and Planning; Titus Mteleka, Assistant Permanent
Secretary (PS) and Director of Science and Technology;

Abraham Nyanda, Director of the Atomic Energy Commission;
Margareth M. Komba, Senior Science and Technology Management
Officer; and Ms Mkaula, Science and Technology Officer.

16. (U) Discussions with the Office of the President
included: Ruth H. Mollel, Permanent Secretary for Public
Service Management; George Yambesi, Deputy Permanent
Secretary; Emmanuel Mlay, Assistant Director, Establishment;

and Dr. Issa, Director of Human Resource Development.

17. (U) Tanzanians who attended the DCM-hosted reception
included: Liberata Mulamula, Caroline Kitana, and America
Desk Officers Yusuph Mndolwa and Hemed Mgaza of the MFA;
Minister of Defense Kapuya; Director of the Centre for
Foreign Relations Professor Abillah Omari; and Titus Mteleka,
Assistant Permanent Secretary (PS) and Director of Science
and Technology.

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